School Reform in Central Asia
In the current transition period, public schools in Kyrgyzstan believe that "democracy" has seriously eroded the moral climate of society, or at least the society that remianing school personnel used to know and understand. Using testimony from school directors and their staffs from three rural Kyrgyz schools, this paper will lay out what each school believes is the moral task at hand for educators in the Kyrgyz Republic. None of the schools is active in conflict identification and management, although each hosts a small foreign curricular program related to international relations. Meanwhile, all are eager to help create the new moral order in the country under the aegis of their continuing emphasis on social upbringing.
Educational Development, Conflict Resolution and Postconflict Development in Central Eurasia
My presentation at this seminar will be a very preliminary exploration of ideas that I will develop in more detail over the summer of 2005. This research project will explore the interaction and role of educational development in conflict zones in several ways. First, it will examine the legacies of Soviet education in patterns of social and economic development and in the shaping of identities in the northern Caucasus , the southern Caucasus , and Central Asia, with special attention to real and imagined patterns of privilege and exclusion in educational provision, equity and access. Second, I will explore how conflicts over language, education and identity influenced and in some cases even drove movements for autonomy and independence in the late 1980s and the early 1990s in places like Chechnya, Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and the Ferghana Valley. Third, I will explore the potential role for new educational programs and interventions to help break cycles of conflict and encourage conflict resolution, based on recent international experience in the Balkans and elsewhere. Finally, I will conclude with a range of policy proposals for new approaches to the role of education in postconflict development, with a special focus on the role of education and training in the service professions for stabilization and reconstruction.
Andrei V. Korobkov
The Post-Soviet Migration Dynamics: From Ethnic Conflict to Economic Necessity
The paper is considering the dynamics and the most important characteristics of the post-Soviet migration flows in the period following the dissolution of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics . The dissolution was widely expected to be followed by large-scale politically motivated migrations. In reality, after a short-term burst of politically motivated migration activity, visible is the contraction of the population territorial mobility in the region, the increasing importance of external emigration, and the growing role of the socio-economic factors in defining the character and intensity of migration flows. The expansion of temporary, labor and undocumented migration is particularly visible. Another important feature of the current situation is the consistently growing Russia 's influence in the field of migrations: remaining the major recipient of migrants, it increasingly plays a role of supplier of labor migrants to the West and acts as a “bridge” for those attempting to reach Western Europe.
The author evaluates migration policies of the newly-independent states and discusses the reasons for the shift from the ethnic and political to the socio-economic factors of migration. The major issues under consideration include the durability of migration and the structural characteristics and the territorial orientation of the new migration flows. The paper discusses the role of migration as a mechanism of market transition, providing for the economic survival of the population under the crisis conditions. Special attention is given to the role of the new migration flows as a factor than can either stimulate or moderate the political and socio-economic conflicts in the home and host countries of migrants. Of particular interest are the influence of the new migration flows on the welfare mechanisms and labor markets of the countries of emigration and immigration, the issues of financial transfers and the criminalization of the migrant sphere as well as the governmental response to the phenomenon of migration.
Nation Building and Conflict Prevention in Central Asia
The paper describe the national identity building and factors which influence this process including identity composition before 20 century, soviet legacy, nation building in larger region and current changes in identity salience. Paper analyzes the dilemma between pan-Islamic state, ethno-nationalism as a product of Soviet ethno-federalist administration, and territorial nationalism. The development of three possible concepts of national identity (ethnic, multicultural and civic) is examined.
Based on the assessment of current composition of social identity system, including clan, regional, ethnic, religious, national, and post-soviet identities, the author looks at possible changes in social and political structure in Central Asia .
To solve these problems:
- one has to preserve the family as a stabilizing factor in the society;
- gender equity in the region is necessary and can only be achieved on the back of successful social and economic reform, including the reform of education system for women;
- international organizations on human and women's rights should be adopted and spread their work through rural women.
ICAR Main Site
Title VIII Program of the State Department