Negotiation Performance: Antecedents, Outcomes, and Training Recommendations
Ph.D., Conflict Analysis and Resolution , George Mason University
M.A., Interdisciplinary Studies, 1996, George Mason University
One capability that is increasingly important to military leadership is effective negotiation skills. This report provides a comprehensive review of negotiation performance, outcomes, and antecedents, and presents a model describing the major linkages between key categories of variables. These include the proximal antecedents of declarative and procedural knowledge, as well as the more distal antecedents of individual difference variables (e.g., cognitive ability, personality) and psychological processes (e.g., cognitive, motivational, and emotional). This report examines the psychological processes in particular detail and explores their effect on how people search for and process information, making them critical to achieving integrative, or mutually beneficial, negotiation agreements. A secondary focus of this report is the cross-cultural context in which many Soldiers increasingly conduct negotiations. The intersection of culture and negotiation is examined with reference to the proposed model and further benefits from the input of military SMEs. Implications for achieving beneficial outcomes in stability, security, transition, and reconstruction (SSTR) operations are discussed. This report concludes by considering training design issues, which are summarized in an overall set of training recommendations. Six specific training needs linked to the proposed model are identified and discussed.